State Bank of India (SBI) is an Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services statutory body headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. SBI is ranked 236th in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations of 2019. A nationalised bank, it is the largest in India with a 23% market share by assets and a 25% share of the total loan and deposits market.
The bank descends from the Bank of Calcutta, founded in 1806 via the Imperial Bank of India, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The Bank of Madras merged into the other two presidency banks in British India, the Bank of Calcutta and the Bank of Bombay, to form the Imperial Bank of India, which in turn became the State Bank of India in 1955. The Government of India took control of the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with Reserve Bank of India (India's central bank) taking a 60% stake, renaming it State Bank of India.
The roots of State Bank of India lie in the first decade of the 19th century when the Bank of Calcutta later renamed the Bank of Bengal, was established on 2 June 1806. The Bank of Bengal was one of three Presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay (incorporated on 15 April 1840) and the Bank of Madras (incorporated on 1 July 1843). All three Presidency banks were incorporated as joint stock companies and were the result of royal charters. These three banks received the exclusive right to issue paper currency till 1861 when, with the Paper Currency Act, the right was taken over by the Government of India. The Presidency banks amalgamated on 27 January 1921, and the re-organised banking entity took as its name Imperial Bank of India. The Imperial Bank of India remained a joint-stock company but without Government participation.
Pursuant to the provisions of the State Bank of India Act of 1955, the Reserve Bank of India, which is India's central bank, acquired a controlling interest in the Imperial Bank of India. On 1 July 1955, the Imperial Bank of India became the State Bank of India. In 2008, the Government of India acquired the Reserve Bank of India's stake in SBI so as to remove any conflict of interest because the RBI is the country's banking regulatory authority.
In 1959, the government passed the State Bank of India (Subsidiary Banks) Act. This made eight banks that had belonged to princely states into subsidiaries of SBI. This was at the time of the First Five Year Plan, which prioritised the development of rural India. The government integrated these banks into the State Bank of India system to expand its rural outreach. In 1963 SBI merged State Bank of Jaipur (est. 1943) and State Bank of Bikaner (est.1944).
SBI has acquired local banks in rescues. The first was the Bank of Bihar (est. 1911), which SBI acquired in 1969, together with its 28 branches. The next year SBI acquired National Bank of Lahore (est. 1942), which had 24 branches. Five years later, in 1975, SBI acquired Krishnaram Baldeo Bank, which had been established in 1916 in Gwalior State, under the patronage of Maharaja Madho Rao Scindia. The bank had been the Dukan Pichadi, a small moneylender, owned by the Maharaja. The new bank's first manager was Jall N. Broacha, a Parsi. In 1985, SBI acquired the Bank of Cochin in Kerala, which had 120 branches. SBI was the acquirer as its affiliate, the State Bank of Travancore, already had an extensive network in Kerala.
There was, even before it actually happened, a proposal to merge all the associate banks into SBI to create a single very large bank and streamline operations.
The first step towards unification occurred on 13 August 2008 when State Bank of Saurashtra merged with SBI, reducing the number of associate state banks from seven to six. On 19 June 2009, the SBI board approved the absorption of State Bank of Indore, in which SBI held 98.3%. (Individuals who held the shares prior to its takeover by the government held the balance of 1.7%.)
The acquisition of State Bank of Indore added 470 branches to SBI's existing network of branches. Also, following the acquisition, SBI's total assets approached ₹10 trillion. The total assets of SBI and the State Bank of Indore were ₹9,981,190 million as of March 2009. The process of merging of State Bank of Indore was completed by April 2010, and the SBIndore branches started functioning as SBI branches on 26 August 2010.
On 7 October 2013, Arundhati Bhattacharya became the first woman to be appointed Chairperson of the bank. Mrs. Bhattacharya received an extension of two years of service to merge into SBI the five remaining associate banks.
SBI provides a range of banking products through its network of branches in India and overseas, including products aimed at non-resident Indians (NRIs). SBI has 16 regional hubs and 57 zonal offices that are located at important cities throughout India.
SBI has over 24000 branches in India. In the financial year 2012–13, its revenue was ₹2.005 trillion (US$28 billion), out of which domestic operations contributed to 95.35% of revenue. Similarly, domestic operations contributed to 88.37% of total profits for the same financial year.
Under the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana of financial inclusion launched by Government in August 2014, SBI held 11,300 camps and opened over 3 million accounts by September, which included 2.1 million accounts in rural areas and 1.57 million accounts in urban areas.
As of 2014–15, the bank had 191 overseas offices spread over 36 countries having the largest presence in foreign markets among Indian banks.
In 1989, SBI established an offshore bank, State Bank of India International (Mauritius) Ltd. This then amalgamated with The Indian Ocean International Bank (which had been doing retail banking in Mauritius since 1979) to form SBI (Mauritius) Ltd. Today, SBI (Mauritius) Ltd has 14 branches – 13 retail branches and 1 global business branch at Ebene in Mauritius. SBI Sri Lanka now has three branches located in Colombo, Kandy and Jaffna. The Jaffna branch was opened on 9 September 2013. SBI Sri Lanka is the oldest bank in Sri Lanka; it was founded in 1864.
In 1982, the bank established a subsidiary, State Bank of India, which now has ten branches—nine branches in the state of California and one in Washington, D.C. The 10th branch was opened in Fremont, California on 28 March 2011. The other eight branches in California are located in Los Angeles, Artesia, San Jose, Canoga Park, Fresno, San Diego, Tustin and Bakersfield.
In Nigeria, SBI operates as INMB Bank. This bank began in 1981 as the Indo–Nigerian Merchant Bank and received permission in 2002 to commence retail banking. It now has five branches in Nigeria. In Nepal, SBI owns 55% of "Nepal SBI Bank Limited". (The state-owned Employees Provident Fund of Nepal owns 15% and the general public owns the remaining 30%.) Nepal SBI Bank Limited has branches throughout the country.
In Moscow, SBI owns 60% of Commercial Bank of India, with Canara Bank owning the rest. In Indonesia, it owns 76% of PT Bank Indo Monex. State Bank of India already has a branch in Shanghai and plans to open one in Tianjin. In Kenya, State Bank of India owns 76% of Giro Commercial Bank, which it acquired for US$8 million in October 2005. In January 2016, SBI opened its first branch in Seoul, South Korea.
Former Associate Banks
SBI acquired the control of seven banks in 1960. They were the seven regional banks of former Indian princely states. They were renamed, prefixing them with 'State Bank of'. These seven banks were State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ), State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH), State Bank of Indore (SBN), State Bank of Mysore (SBM), State Bank of Patiala (SBP), State Bank of Saurashtra (SBS) and State Bank of Travancore (SBT). All these banks were given the same logo as the parent bank, SBI. State Bank of India and all its associate banks used the same blue Keyhole logo said to have been inspired by Ahmedabad's Kankaria Lake. The State Bank of India wordmark usually had one standard typeface, but also utilised other typefaces. The wordmark now has the keyhole logo followed by "SBI".
The plans for making SBI a single very large bank by merging the associate banks started in 2008, and in September the same year, SBS merged with SBI. The very next year, State Bank of Indore (SBN) also merged.
Following a merger process, the merger of the 5 remaining associate banks, (viz. State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur, State Bank of Hyderabad, State Bank of Mysore, State Bank of Patiala, State Bank of Travancore); and the Bharatiya Mahila Bank) with the SBI was given an in-principle approval by the Union Cabinet on 15 June 2016. This came a month after the SBI board had, on 17 May 2016, cleared a proposal to merge its five associate banks and Bharatiya Mahila Bank with itself.
On 15 February 2017, the Union Cabinet approved the merger of five associate banks with SBI. An analyst foresaw an initial negative impact as a result of different pension liability provisions and accounting policies for bad loans. The merger went into effect from 1 April 2017.
Apart from five of its associate banks (merged with SBI since 1 April 2017), SBI's non-banking subsidiaries include:
- SBI Capital Markets Ltd
- SBI Cards & Payments Services Pvt. Ltd. (SBICPSL)
- SBI Life Insurance Company Limited
In March 2001, SBI (with 74% of the total capital), joined with BNP Paribas (with 26% of the remaining capital), to form a joint venture life insurance company named SBI Life Insurance company Ltd.
Other SBI service points
YES Bank Investment
State Bank of India acquired 48.2% of the shares of Yes Bank as part of RBI directed rescue deal in March 2020.
As on 31 March 2017, Government of India held around 61.23% equity shares in SBI. The Life Insurance Corporation of India, itself state-owned, is the largest non-promoter shareholder in the company with 8.82% shareholding.
|Promoters: Government of India||56.92%|
|Banks & Insurance Companies||10.63%|
|Mutual Funds & UTI||13.72%|
The equity shares of SBI are listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the BSE SENSEX index, and the National Stock Exchange of India, where it is a constituent of the CNX Nifty. Its Global Depository Receipts (GDRs) are listed on the London Stock Exchange.
SBI is one of the largest employers in the country with 209,567 employees as on 31 March 2017, out of which 23% were female employees and 3,179 (1.5%) were employees with disabilities. On the same date, SBI had 37,875 Scheduled Castes (18%), 17,069 Scheduled Tribes (8.1%) and 39,709 Other Backward Classes (18.9%) employees. The percentage of Officers, Associates and Subordinates was 38.6%, 44.3% and 16.9% respectively on the same date. Around 13,000 employees joined the Bank in FY 2016–17. Each employee contributed a net profit of ₹511,000 (US$7,200) during FY 2016–17.
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- Business data for State Bank of India:
- Bandhan Bank
- Canara Bank
- TMB : Tamilnad Mercantile Bank
- APGVB : Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas Bank
- NABARD – National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development
- KSP – KARNATAKA STATE POLICE
- WBSCTE – West Bengal State Council of Technical Education
- WBSEDCL – West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company
- WBSEDCL : West Bengal State Electricity Distribution Company Limited
- WBSCVT – West Bengal State Council of Technical & Vocational Education and Skill Development